What are the one requirement for equilibrium?
Conditions for equilibrium require that the sum of all external forces acting on the body is zero (first condition of equilibrium), and the sum of all external torques from external forces is zero (second condition of equilibrium). These two conditions must be simultaneously satisfied in equilibrium.
- There must be no resulting force or a total of exterior forces working on the matter in a chemical reaction.
- There must be no resulting torque or a total of exterior torques working on the matter in the chemical reaction.
A solid body submitted to three forces whose lines of action are not parallel is in equilibrium if the three following conditions apply : The lines of action are coplanar (in the same plane) The lines of action are convergent (they cross at the same point) The vector sum of these forces is equal to the zero vector.
- Rate forward = Rate reverse.
- Closed System: no reactants or products lost.
- all appears constant (no VISIBLE changes)
- DYNAMIC (moving)- changing on ATOMIC level.
If an object is at equilibrium, then the forces are balanced. Balanced is the key word that is used to describe equilibrium situations. Thus, the net force is zero and the acceleration is 0 m/s/s. Objects at equilibrium must have an acceleration of 0 m/s/s.
The necessary and sufficient condition(s) for an object to be in equilibrium can be described as: The sum of all forces acting on the object is equal to zero and the sum of all moments acting on the object is equal to zero.
For an object to be in equilibrium, it must be experiencing no acceleration. This means that both the net force and the net torque on the object must be zero.
Net Force Must Be Zero
The net force acting on the object must be zero. Therefore all forces balance in each direction. For example, a car moving along a highway at a constant speed is in equilibrium, as it is not accelerating in any forward or vertical direction. Mathematically, this is stated as Fnet=ma=0.
A system is at equilibrium when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. If additional reactant is added the rate of the forward reaction increases. As the rate of the reverse reaction is initially unchanged, the equilibrium appears to shift toward the product, or right, side of the equation.
A market is said to have reached equilibrium price when the supply of goods matches demand.
What are the 3 factors involved in Le Chatelier's principle?
- Changes in concentration.
- Changes in pressure.
- Changes in temperature.
This states that if three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium, then each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two forces.